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Parties involved

The Kurds are estimated to number, worldwide, around 30–32 million, possibly as many as 37 million,[49][better source needed] with the majority living in West Asia;

Cardholder: The holder of the card used to make a purchase; the consumer.
Card-issuing bank: The financial institution or other organization that issued the credit card to the cardholder. This bank bills the consumer for repayment and bears the risk that the card is used fraudulently. American Express and Discover were previously the only card-issuing banks for their respective brands, but as of 2007, this is no longer the case. Cards issued by banks to cardholders in a different country are known as offshore credit cards.
Merchant: The individual or business accepting credit card payments for products or services sold to the cardholder.
Acquiring bank: The financial institution accepting payment for the products or services on behalf of the merchant.
Independent sales organization: Resellers (to merchants) of the services of the acquiring bank.
Merchant account: This could refer to the acquiring bank or the independent sales organization, but in general is the organization that the merchant deals with.
Credit Card association: An association of card-issuing banks such as Discover, Visa, MasterCard, American Express, etc. that set transaction terms for merchants, card-issuing banks, and acquiring banks.
Transaction network: The system that implements the mechanics of the electronic transactions. May be operated by an independent company, and one company may operate multiple networks.

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